Liesbet Hooghe and Gary Marks
CLEAVAGE THEORY MEETS EUROPE’S CRISES: LIPSET, ROKKAN, AND THE TRANSNATIONAL CLEAVAGE
This paper theorizes how the Eurocrisis and the migration crisis have reinforced a transnational cleavage that has at its core a cultural conflict pitting libertarian, universalistic values against the defense of nationalism and particularism.
Radical right and green parties take polar positions on Europe and immigration, place more salience on them, and exhibit greater internal unity than mainstream parties. The perforation of national states by immigration, integration, and trade may signify a critical juncture in the political development of Europe no less consequential for parties and party systems than the previous junctures that Lipset and Rokkan (1967) detect in their classic article.